Recently we were thinking about movies with some kind of financial lesson. The financial side of making films has always intrigued us. Historically the Oscars have always been proof that the biggest budget doesn’t always give the best ROI. In 2010, the lowest grossing Oscar winning film in history – The Hurt Locker – beat out the highest grossing picture in history – Avatar.
Here’s my list of the top 10 movies ever made that have a financial lesson inside of them.
1. Boiler Room (2000) – A college dropout gets a job and enjoys fast success at a brokerage house selling phony stock. However, the job turns out not be as legit as it sounds. This film is mix of Wall Street and Glengarry Glen Ross thrown in. Although there’s no character here that can compare to Michael Douglas’ Gordon Gekko.
Lesson: Great morality lesson dealing with the desire to get rich quick, regardless of the consequences.
2. Wall Street (1987) – “Greed, for lack of a better word, is good”. This line by ruthless corporate raider, Gordon Gekko, summed up the business ethics of the 1980s, when greed, corruption and the predatory nature of the financial world was at its most conspicuous. The film charts the ascent of a young, ambitious stockbroker who’s taken under Gekko’s wing and struggles with whether it’s better to have money or integrity. Gekko is the embodiment of corporate malfeasance, but also portrayed as a business guru. His glamor and power probably inspired a lot of young men to enter investment banking over the last two decades. As Gekko said, “It’s all about bucks, kid. The rest is conversation.”
Lesson: Greed is good. What’s worth doing is worth doing for money. Lunch is for wimps. If you need a friend, buy a dog. So goes the wisdom of Gordon Gekko, ruthless investor, legendary financier – and the star of one of the best movies ever made about money. This film also provides a great backdrop to the landscape that led to the financial crisis of 2008.
3. Glengarry Glen Ross (1992) – Times are tough. This is the ultimate real estate high pressure sales environment film where making money is the bottom line. A desperate group of Chicago investment property real estate salesmen suffer in a down market, a sales contest is launched and anyone who fails loses his job.
Now that the property bubble has burst, some real estate offices may soon seem a little bit more “Glengarry”. There’s no room for losers, only ‘closers’ will get the good sales leads. Some regarded this film as a critique of the impact of Reaganomics.
Lesson: Too much pressure to succeed can boil over into tragedy with unforeseen consequences.
With the upcoming premiere of the film “Wall Street – Money Never Sleeps” it got me thinking about movies with some kind of financial lesson. The financial side of making filmshasalways intrigued me. This year’s Oscars were yet again proof that the biggest budget doesn’t always give the best ROI. In 2010, the lowest grossing Oscar winning film in history – The Hurt Locker – beat out the highest grossing picture in history – Avatar.
Here’s my list of the top 10 movies ever made that have a financial lesson inside of them.
4. Maxed Out. Hard times. Easy Credit. The Era of Predatory Lending (2006) – This documentary shows how the modern financial industry really works. It explores America’s love with credit and leveraged debt and tells us why the poor are getting poorer and the rich getting richer. When Hurricane Katrina ravaged America’s coast, it revealed that America was far from the world’s wealthiest nation. It also highlighted America’s crumbling beneath a staggering burden of individual and government debt. Maxed Out shows how predatory lending was out of control, including credit cards pumped to college kids who had no income. This is a great movie. It’ll make you feel different about your money.
Lesson: It delivers a great lesson on how to borrow and shows why you don’t want to live on credit. Credit is the devil. Do you know anyone who got into trouble because they didn’t borrow too much money? Maxed Out paints a picture of a national nightmare which is all too real for most of us – out of control spending and an irrational use of credit.
5. Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room (2005) – Before Bernie Madoff, there were Ken Lay and Jeff Skilling who ran the Houston energy firm that was going to reinvent how energy was going to be done in America. Enron was highly profitable, had a great amount of cash flow and earnings and the stock price soared. Its executives cashed out options worth millions and told employees their best 401K option was Enron stock. Thousands lost all their retirement savings because they put all their bets on one company. Took Enron 16 yrs to from 10b assets to 65b assets, but it took them 24 days to go bankrupt. It won the Academy Award for best documentary.
Lessons: Have a financial plan, have a discipline. If you have a stock that looks too good to be true and it just keeps going up, up, up, it’s probably too good to be true. Diversify, Diversify, Diversify. Don’t put all your eggs into one basket.
6. Working Girl (1988) – Melanie Griffith plays Tess McGill. Endearing 80s film. Ultimately she takes a job as a secretary but she wants to rise in investment world. Wants to rise to power, combines her business degree from night school w/ her street smart acumen & pulls of a mega-merger. Total fantasy. Prince charming happy ending w/ Harrison Ford. “I have a head for business and a body for sex.”, says Melanie Griffith’s character. Go back to night school, go back & get a degree. Go get educated, you’ll get leverage. No one can take your education away from you.
Lessons: Your education, your smarts can’t be wiped out in a recession. Your earning power is rooted in your skills, in your education. Provides an entertaining reminder that if you have something to offer your co. & they don’t seem too interested, then take your skills elsewhere. If you are a super powerful earner at one job, you can make yourself a super powerful earner anywhere.
7. Treasure of the Sierra Madre. 1948. Classic western cautionary tale about how not to launch a venture. If you took everything that Howard Dobbs & Kutan did in this movie: “Get rich quickly without a credible business plan.” “Badges, we don’t need no stinking badges.” Don’t swing blindly, don’t come up w/ a get rich quick scheme, don’t do a pyramid scheme, don’t sell products from your house to your friends or recruit your friends.
Lesson: In life, as in baseball, you’re gonna strike out. You don’t want to strike out blindly while your pursuing a huge home run. You gotta know your business, know your partners, know where you are in all of this.
8. Mr. Blanding Builds His Dream House (1948) – Was remade into The Money Pit, starring Tom Hanks & Shelly Long. Owning a home ain’t cheap. It can turn into a massively expensive ordeal. Home is really a money pit. Owning a home comes w/ a lot of responsibility, gotta have credit, gotta have a down payment, pay your bills, maintain the home, gotta know the risks up front. It’s expensive. You gotta know the worse case scenarios, all the risks, the downside.
Lesson: Shows how the American dream of owning a home can go terribly wrong. Home ownership is not for everybody and shouldn’t be promoted as such by the government.
9. Confessions Of A Shopaholic (2009) – About a chic who’s struggling with a debilitating obsession with shopping and has 12 maxed out credit cards. She unintentionally lands a job as a financial journalist and falls for a wealthy entrepreneur. Don’t buy a $400 watch because it quickly depreciates to nothing. I will buy a $4,000 Rolex – nothing less than a Rolex — because it can still be sold 10 yrs after you buy it for what you paid for it. You use credit to buy things of value: an education, a car to get you to work, (I prefer to buy 2-yr old used cars because it loses half its value up front when you drive it off the lot, but you can still get 50-60,000 miles out of it.)
Lesson: Only use credit for things that have value. Pay cash for everything else.
10. Brewster’s Millions (1985) – The ultimate spending spree is something that most of us have daydreamt about at some time. A minor league baseball player, Montgomery Brewster, (Richard Pryor) has to waste $30m in 30s days in order to inherit $300m; however, he’s not allowed to tell anyone about the $300m deal.
Lesson: How corruptible too much money can be and how difficult it can be to use it responsibly.
As a keen investor, you will know that the stock market is constantly changing. In 2008, it was estimated that the size of the world stock market was $36.6 trillion. It is ever growing and expanding, but also dipping and rising in value all the time.
These days you can invest in almost anything, from gold and silver on Bullion Vault to Real Estate. If you’ve invested in stocks and shares then you are going to want to check the stock market on a regular basis. We have found just a couple of the best stock apps about so you can track and manage your stocks right from your iPad.
This app by Value Prime, is a powerful stock analysis app which provides thorough analysis for a huge variety of stocks. In addition, it also helps you to judge stocks by providing statistics based upon risk, valuation and financial strength. The app has an archive of 6,700 stocks, and for each stock you are given a detailed overview of its state. The app is able to tell you everything about the stock, from its valuation rating and financial strength to its risk score and its sharpe ratio. It has a user-friendly interface which is loaded with tons of features.
Produced by Toughturtle LLC, StockWatch allows you to easily track your stocks from your iPad. It differs from StockGuru because this app is purely designed to help you track stocks you already own, rather than helping you make decisions on other stocks. The app was noted in Apple’s iTunes Rewind as one of the best apps of 2010. You can create portfolios and even make watch-lists so you never miss a thing. In addition, there is a news feed integrated in the app so you will always be in the know.
Six months ago TheStreet busted out its top tech stocks for 2010. Here’s our mid-term report for three of them.
Internet behemoth Amazon AMZN-Q made our list of the year’s top tech stocks after leaving rivals like eBay trailing in its wake. after successfully navigating the recession, Amazon was seen as one of the few large-cap tech companies capable of major growth.
Investors, however, have been less than impressed with Amazon so far this year, although the market’s expectations may have been over-inflated.
Even good first-quarter results were not enough to drive the company’s stock upward, although disappointing guidance weighed on Amazon’s shares. overall, Amazon’s share price has dipped 0.98% over the last six months.
There are certainly some big hurdles in Amazon’s path. the strengthening dollar, for example, recently prompted Barclays Capital to trim its Amazon price target and EPS estimates. State taxation of Internet sales, the so-called Amazon Tax,could also prove a headache for online retailers.
Another threat looming on the horizon is Apple’s AAPL-QiPad, touted as a potential Kindle-killer.
Still, there are plenty of positives in the Amazon story. as of last month, the retail giant had reportedly sold 3 million Kindle e-readers, although exact figures have not yet been released. Amazon also clinched a recent deal to sell Kindles at retail giant Target.
The company’s acquisition of popular online shoe seller Zappos.com was also a shrewd move that bodes well for the future, and third-party sellers are expected to drive Amazon’s overseas sales.
Thomas Weisel recently initiated its coverage of Amazon with a Market weight rating and $135 price target. Amazon now holds a significant portion — 12% — of the total U.S. e-commerce market, according to the analyst firm.
Currently trading around $126.49, Amazon’s share dip could still spell longer-term upside for investors.
Described as a “mini-Microsoft” because of its dominant position in the Linux market, Red Hat RHT-N has enjoyed solid, if unspectacular, share gains this year. the company’s stock has risen 9.7 per cent during the last six months and the software maker is still getting plenty of analyst love.
Lazard Capital Markets recently initiated coverage of Red Hat with a buy rating and $35 price target.
“Red Hat is one of the best-positioned companies in mid-cap software,” explained analyst Joel Fishbein, in a note released earlier this month. “In our view, Red Hat’s recurring revenue model, high revenue visibility, and sticky customer base are under-appreciated.”
Red Hat, which competes with Microsoft MSFT-Q, Novell and Oracle, is seen as well-positioned to tap into some of tech’s biggest trends. these include virtualization, cloud computing and growing demand for middleware, a form of software that links different computer programs.
In March, the company posted strong fourth-quarter numbers, although its profit forecast fell short of analysts’ estimates, bringing down Red Hat’s stock.
M&A chatter also continues to swirl around the company, which is currently trading at around $31.90. There has been plenty of speculation about which firms might snap up Red Hat, with IBM and Oracle already touted as potential purchasers.
Lazard’s mr. Fishbein feels that the software maker remains an attractive M&A target, particularly given its share price. “Red Hat’s unique technology and business model position the company as an ideal acquisition candidate at a significant premium to current trading multiple,” he wrote, in his recent note.
VMware VMW-N is certainly living up to our call. Buoyed by international sales and growing license revenue, VMware blew past analysts’ estimates in its recent first quarter and gave strong guidance.
While there have been some fears about the stock’s valuation, VMware shares have risen more than 72% in the last six months. It’s currently trading around $71.72 and has plenty of fans.
“We continue to believe additional upside exists in VMware,” explained Brian Marshall, an analyst at Gleacher & Company, in a recent note. Marshall, who reiterated his VMware buy rating, also raised the company’s price target from $65 to $85, underlining the ongoing strength of virtualization technology.
Virtualization lets users divide physical hardware into multiple virtual chunks and has grown in popularity among users juggling a myriad of operating systems and applications. with companies also struggling with budget pressures, VMware and its rivals such as Microsoft and Citrix are pushing virtualization as a way for firms to reduce the amount of server and storage hardware within their data centers.
Majority-owned by storage giant EMC EMC-N, VMware is also expected to tap the ongoing PC refresh with its desktop virtualization software.
There’s a divergence in the market right now that may bode well for stock investors. UBS, which tracks the movement of funds by its own clients in Europe, says long-only funds–which only make bullish bets on the stock market–are buying stocks at the highest level in nearly a year. What’s more, hedge funds, which hedge their bullish bets on the stock market with short or bearish positions, are selling at the greatest pace in eighteen months.
It’s the biggest divergence that UBS has seen between its clients’ movement of funds since the Swiss bank started tracking the data in 2006. the reason it puts some store in the data is that it says the last two times long-only buying was at these levels, March 2009 and July 2009, the MSCI Europe index performed very strongly over the next three months.
Of course, remember on both these occasions, stocks were coming off a very depressed base which may explain the subsequent market rallies. (True, says one of the authors of the UBS report, who points out that the market’s levels in early 2009 were “crazy cheap.” still, this author says, when looked at historically, today’s market levels look “relatively cheap.”
UBS’s data also show that buying of defensive stocks–shares of companies like drug-makers which are likely to provide some security if the economy slides into a recession again–is at the highest level in nine months. yet, in today’s skittish market, investors are sifting through defensive stocks carefully, buying some like pharmaceutical companies and food retailers and avoiding others like telecommunications and utilities. One of the reasons investors are shunning telecommunications and utilities, UBS says, is that both have a high exposure to southern Europe where fears over a sovereign debt crisis are riding high.Conversely, UBS says some economically sensitive or so-called cyclical sectors such as capital goods and autos have outperformed because of their lower exposure to troubled parts of Europe. the bank says its client flow data shows almost no selling of cyclical stocks in the current correction.
Based on stock loan data as of June 7, UBS says the European large or mid-sized companies which have seen heavy borrowing of their stock by investors who typically want to take bearish bets include banking software supplier Temenos with 26.3% of its market capitalization on loan, car navigation system maker TomTom, with 12.3% of its outstanding shares on loan, temporary help agency Adecco with 9.9% of its market capitalization on loan, consulting concern CapGemini with 8.5% of its stock on loan and insurer AXA with 7.9% of its shares on loan.
In the U.K., British Airways, which is just emerging this week from the latest strike by its cabin crew, is the most heavily shorted stock in the FTSE-100, according to UBS. Slightly more than 26% of BA’s stock has been sold short, a monthly rise of 1.19%, suggesting even if investors think the stock has been beaten down too much, it may still be too early to jump in and start nibbling. British Airways has been leading UBS’s FTSE-100 heavily-shorted stock list since at least April and rather than declining, its short position has been rising, indicating that the towards the British airline’s bearish momentum continues to build. No wonder. the union representing BA’s cabin crew said Wednesday it plans to hold another ballot of its members for further strike action this summer.
The stock loan data provides a lagging indicator of what the smart money is doing, but one of its chief values is the window it provides into selling trends. Judging by the latest data, it might be worth taking a closer look at Vedanta and London Stock Exchange, but for now hold off taking a flier on BA stock.
If you’re a new investor looking to expand your portfolio with some new securities, you might be wondering what all the fuss is about these hot stocks that are all over the internet. these days, everyone from televisions personalities to internet investors is claiming that they have the inside track on the hot stock picks that you’ve just got to purchase, but it’s important not to get caught up in all the hype. while hot stocks do have the potential to make you some money in just a short period of time, they also carry an increased risk.
Just like their name implies, hot stock picks are usually those that are fairly new to the market, very volatile, and poised to make a big increase in price. For investors that are looking to “buy low and sell high,” the hot stocks have an allure that is particularly hard to ignore, as they as the stocks that are most likely to make a big jump in value, generating big profits for those that were first in line to buy them. the only problem with these stocks is that their companies are usually untested in the marketplace, meaning that it’s not uncommon for them to flop without earning a penny.
Even though you might be caught up in the excitement of hot stock picks, it’s important that you don’t abandon the principles of both fundamental and technical analysis that have been applied to the other stocks in your portfolio. Technical analysis demands that you spend time analyzing the way that a stock’s price has moved up and down in the market over the past few years, noting any patterns or trends that would indicate that it is growing or declining. if a stock is too new for you to be able to analyze it in the charts, it’s probably too risky.
Fundamental analysis demands that you spend time analyzing the way that the company has performed in the past, both financially and politically. are there signs that this company might be getting new leadership, or that it might merge with another company? these things affect the value of hot stock picks, and can mean that the stock takes a nosedive instead of making you an overnight millionaire. no matter how excited you might get about a certain stock pick, it’s important never to abandon common sense and your knowledge of how far you’re willing to go for a potential profit.
How to Calculate gross Profit
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Share and Enjoy: How To Calculate Gross Profit
Have you thought about your financial future? Are you starting to get concerned with saving for retirement? This is one step towards investing for your future. That’s great that you’re thinking about your future, but you need to do more than just think.
If you want to start investing, stocks are just one route to take, but you could also invest in real estate, currency, bonds, and commodities, to name a few. you can invest in just about anything want to invest in.
When looking at the different types of investments, you will learn that some investments are better than others. I don’t mean that one investment should always be chosen over another, but different ones work better for different people.
If you invest in stocks, you won’t be deeply disappointed. they are great investments and will almost always earn you more money than bonds with minimal risk. they are easy to get a grasp up as well, unlike derivatives.
Stocks are great for young people in their twenties or thirties. they have plenty of time to recover from any losses they may have so they can take greater risks. It’s true, you might lose money once in a while with stocks. in fact, you probably will from time to time.
When you invest, in stocks or any other type of investment, you are taking a risk that you will lose money. That’s part of investing. You’ll make money, you’ll lose money. As long as you are making a profit overall, you are doing well.
Diversification is what allows you to take these risks with confidence. Don’t buy only stock from one company. if you have a loss on one stock, you should have others with gains to offset the loss. if you’re lucky, you’ll have all gains.
When retirement gets close, put more of your money into less risky investments like bonds. you want to reduce risk to avoid losses right before you’ll need the money.
Why you should Buy Stocks and Invest in the Markets? Plain and simple, buying stocks is the easiest way to create wealth. Investing is relatively simple and the rewards are great. By Investing in the Markets it will open up the world to you offering you more money to do what you want. Money gives you opportunities so investing will allow you to explore your opportunities whether they are retiring in a beach house in Mexico, paying for child’s education, or just for traveling the globe. Realistically, unless you have a top-notch salary, investing in the Stock Market is the only true way to reach financial independence.
Benefits of Investing and Power of Compounding
Lets put it real simple to show you the benefits of investing. Say you put $2,000 of your savings into the stock market and invest within the S&P 500. Well the S&P’s historical average is 10% and would make your 2,000 worth $34,898.80 after 30 years. Now do you see the gain from investing? On the contrary if you put that same amount of money into a savings account your $2,000 would only be worth $3,622.72 30 years later. Quite a difference huh? This number will shock you even more. If you invest $1,000 a year in the S&P 500 after 45 years it will have grown to over one million dollars. Overall you only added $46,000 over the time but compound interest and solid investments did the job for you. Below is a graph that shows the power of investing and why you should put your money in the Stock Market rather than a CD or Bond. Historically overtime CD’s and Government Bonds have averaged around 5%. The Stock Market has averaged 10% over the same period and if you learned how to trade yourself or followed Stocks on Wall Street you could easily achieve 15%-20%.
Shocking what a few percentage points can do and why it pays off to take some risk. Remember you are a long-term investor so you’ll go through the bull markets and bear ones but overall your money stays put and grows exponentially.
Time Value of Money
Lets say your parents start you investing when your 15 years old with a simple $100 dollar bill. Look how that simple bill will grow:
As you can see the reason you buy stocks and invest in the markets is to grow your money so you can retire safely. Buying stocks is the fastest way to grow your money but it comes with assuming lots of risk so be careful.
Illegal immigration, a growing problem or a helpful hand? As of 2008, the U.S. is estimated to have around sixteen million illegal aliens comprising roughly 5% of the population. Over the past few years, this has been a very controversial issue both within Congress and society at large. The term ‘illegal immigrants’ is most commonly used to refer to immigrants from Mexico, Central, and South America who sneak across the border in the hope of a better life. They aspire to the American dream where they hope for a better lifestyle and more income to support their extended families back home. Many come, not just because of America’s economic appeal, but also to escape abject poverty, unemployment, and oppression. Proponents of amnesty for illegal immigrants ask how can we deny them access to the American dream and our principles of universal liberty. They argue it’s a matter of compassion and enabling more diversity. Opponents argue that the cost burdens are devastating, that we must follow the rule of law and cannot be selective about which laws we choose to enforce. They ask, at what point do we say stop?
Although many Americans still don’t consider illegal employment a serious offense, its economic impact has elevated this issue to the national stage. An objective analysis weighing the benefits against the true costs may likely show that illegal immigrants constitute a net drain on the U.S. economy – although a definitive analysis or conclusion remains elusive.
The negative impact of illegal immigrants and their drain on the U.S. economy is significant. U.S. News & World Report recently reported in November, 2008 that the U.S. Federal Government’s annual expenditure for aid to illegal immigrants totaled twenty-two billion dollars for welfare, two billion on food assistance programs, and two and a half billion on Medicaid. According to proceedings from a 1997 meeting of the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Immigration and Claims, “Through other violations of our immigration laws, Mexican drug cartels are able to extend their command and control into the United States. Drug smuggling fosters, subsidizes, and is dependent upon continued illegal immigration and alien smuggling.” These drug cartels account for 80% of the supply of methamphetamines in the U.S. Furthermore, additional hazardous effects include illegal drunk drivers and murderous illegal aliens who have claimed over nine thousand American citizens’ lives in just the last year alone; plus, criminal gang activity has ballooned as a result of the influx of illegals. According to the Los Angeles Times, 60% of Mexican gang members in Los Angeles are illegal immigrants. Are these really the kind of individuals or refugees we should be allowing to immigrate into our country?
The above-mentioned issues do not even begin to quantify the huge negative impact of illegal aliens on a whole host of social services and the associated hidden costs. This has created a crisis of unprecedented proportions in our social institutions, especially schools and medical facilities. They have contributed to an erosion in the quality of education by straining the coffers and resources of local school districts. Medical emergency rooms are closing all over the country, having been bankrupted by the huge influx of illegal aliens who are unable or unwilling to pay for services. They drive on public roads, send their children to public schools and engage in a host of activities, all of which drain social service coffers and cost the government money. Many doubt that whatever taxes illegals may pay in the form of sales or unclaimed social security benefits can begin to cover the net drain they incur on social services.
On the other side of the equation, it is clear that illegal immigrants also bring some benefits to American society. Advocates for illegal immigration claim that illegals keep the economy growing by filling low-wage jobs many Americans won’t do. The Wall Street Journal reported in 2005 that illegal immigration is positive to our economy and that they generate a net economic benefit. The Journal reported that, in a $13 trillion economy, illegal immigrant accounted for about 1% of total economic activity, which would mean that they would contribute about $13 billion. Also, they make contributions toward social security that often go unclaimed, pay sales taxes, and keep the real estate market propped up in remote areas where renters are hard to find. George Borjas, Professor of Economics and Social Policy at Harvard University, contends that illegal immigration has a more beneficial impact on the middle and upper classes, yet hurts the lower class because it takes away jobs. Granted, this is only one study, but Borjas claims African Americans are hurt the most since they lose jobs that are filled by illegal aliens.
This raises the question as to whether the U.S. economy truly needs illegal immigrants to fill jobs Americans won’t do and whether we are doing more harm to our society by allowing an influx of illegal cheap labor to take away jobs from the poor. With unemployment at 6.1%, a seven-year high, would American citizens perhaps consider taking all these lower wage jobs? Illegals take $18.1 billion a year in wages away from America citizens. In order to determine if illegal immigrants are beneficial to the overall economy, one must balance the total taxes they pay and labor savings they provide against the real total cost and opportunity cost of all the services they consume as well as economic losses derived from their associated criminal activity. Unfortunately, there is no definitive answer and a comprehensive objective analysis remains elusive.
Large corporations and the agricultural industry are the primary advocates for doing nothing about illegal immigration and the resultant stalemate. This is because they are huge beneficiaries of cheap illegal labor that in turn ensures their continued positive profit margins. It is a truly propitious scenario for employers: depressed labor costs, an abundant supply of workers who don’t demand benefits, and the avoidance of unions and labor laws. Huge windfall profits by companies exploiting illegal laborers have resulted in outspoken officials such as Tennessee Senator, Bill Frist and Arizona Governor, Jane Napolitano stepping up and pushing for corporations to be held accountable for their actions. For example, Wal-Mart paid $11 million in 2005 to settle a federal investigation that found hundreds of illegal immigrants hired by Wal-Mart’s cleaning contractors. The largest crackdown in U.S. history occurred in 2006 at Swift meat processing plants when the federal government raided their plants and arrested 1,300 illegal immigrant employees. The problem is that not enough advocates are taking on corporations. Most recently, Democrat Harry Reid decided to cripple his party’s ability to vote on several amendments that would help legalize illegal immigration and alleviate the burden of illegal immigrants on taxpayers. This type of stubbornness in Congress is indicative of the mentality that pervades the entire government resulting in almost no progress while the corporate and agricultural sectors continue to reap the benefits.
It’s important to understand the underlying causes of America’s illegal immigration problem. Mexico, Central and South America are in a state of economic and/or social disarray and immigrants flee not only economic hardship but also civil war, repression, religious persecution, genocide, and dictatorships. U.S. groups have accused Mexico of collaborating to facilitate even more illegal immigration into the U.S. For example, over the past several years, Mexico has produced over 70,000 maps marking roads and water tanks for people illegally crossing the border. However, according to Mauricio Farah of Mexico’s Human Right Commission, “The only thing we are trying to do is warn them of the risks they face and where to get water, so they don’t die.” Other cases have been found in the Yucatan State of Mexico, where the government produced educational materials on how to stay under the radar once in America, including tips for finding free health care, enrolling children in school, and how to send money home. Ira Mehlman of the Federation for American Immigration Reform says, “This is really the way they keep their corrupt system afloat, by sending their excess workers to the United States and getting billions of dollars in remittances every year… so, for them, this is a worthwhile investment.”
A primary cause has been the broad-based failure of the Mexican government to fulfill commitments to its own citizens as well as to the United States. Mexico promised to invest billions in roads, schooling, sanitation, housing, and other infrastructure to support border factories, which would manufacture goods for America. This plan was part of the North American Free Trade Agreement and was intended as a way to reduce illegal immigration and help the Mexican economy. Instead, China was able to out-flank Mexico in terms of manufacturing goods import into the U.S. With such a corrupt government, it is unclear whether Mexico will ever be able to revive its economy sufficiently and offer its people the opportunities similar to those they receive in America. As a result, millions of immigrants continue to cross the borders and this number will only continue to grow annually. The Pew Research Center reported that, at current rates, it is projected that by 2050 white American citizens will become a minority and the Hispanic population will become the majority, with two thirds coming directly from illegal immigration. Eventually, all sides will have to come together and agree on a comprehensive solution that will be able to benefit all.
The U.S. Federal Government has been unable to commit to any form of comprehensive prevention measure that will halt illegal immigration. If the government continues to offer free benefits, it is human nature for people to take advantage of them. Compounding the issue are cities such as San Francisco or New York that promote themselves as ‘sanctuary cities’ providing safe haven and a multitude of no-strings benefits for illegal aliens. Practical solutions must eventually be developed to address this conundrum. One controversial issue is the Mexican-U.S. Border fence. In 2006 Congress authorized partial funding mandating the construction of 700 miles of fences and barriers along the border. The fence will be composed of three staggered walls, guard posts, radar sensors, and active working guards at a total cost of $1.3 billion dollars. But will it really provide the solution?
Other advocates say the U.S. must remove the magnet that attracts illegals and propose that, if you dry up the source of the problem and eliminate the free benefits, the flow of illegal immigrants will be drastically reduced. They argue that, by removing the core attraction, a significant proportion of illegals would eventually leave the country by attrition. This would directly target corporations that supply jobs and would go a long way toward removing the magnet. Putting stricter restrictions on these companies and making it a felony to hire illegals would create a strong incentive for immigrants to apply for citizenship. Eliminating free benefits for illegals will send many of them back home once life in the U.S. becomes much more difficult. Those who choose to gain citizenship through proper, legal channels will be granted all the freedoms and benefits that are granted to legal residents and U.S. citizens. This raises another major component that many people believe must be addressed as part of a comprehensive immigration policy: a practical guest worker program. It’s not enough to simply enforce the borders or dry up the magnet of illegal corporate/agricultural employment. These must go hand-in-hand with a fair and efficient guest worker program that still results in providing the immigrant labor resources needed while allowing them to pay their fair share of taxes, receive rightful benefits and to travel home as dictated by seasonal employment and personal family needs.
Unfortunately, the problem is multi-faceted and the solution will require a comprehensive approach. It will be very difficult if not impossible to find a solution that pleases everyone. Any viable solution will require addressing as many interests as possible, but must ultimately follow the rule of law and be in the best interests of the largest number of American Citizens. So should our compassion outweigh legal justice?
Considering all the pros and cons of illegal immigration, does the end really justify the means? What will happen to our society if millions of illegals are allowed to continue to colonize America? Will such a transformation benefit society as a whole or lead to continued polarization and social degradation?
Illegal immigration: a looming crisis or economic necessity? This perennial controversy continues to drive a wedge between factions in both Congress and American society. A key factor is whether the United States should allow its borders to remain relatively porous and also continue public funding to provide social services to illegal immigrants. Illegal immigrants originate primarily in Central and South America, driven by aspirations for a better lifestyle and income to support extended families back home. They are in pursuit of the American dream and economic opportunity that is irresistible compared to the poverty, unemployment and oppression in their native countries. Proponents of open borders frame it as a matter of universal human rights and compassion. They insist American principles of ‘life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness’ are universal and dictate that we must not deny anyone who seeks to improve their lot in life, irrespective of legal status. They also assert that illegal immigrants fill jobs Americans are not willing to do and make a positive contribution to the economy. Opponents of open borders argue for aggressive policies to severely restrict illegal immigration. They contend unhindered immigration is no longer practical in an over-populated world and increasingly limited resources. They further argue that a true cost accounting of the total social costs incurred by illegal immigrants reveals a huge net economic drain that can no longer be sustained. Left unchecked, this burden will become an albatross on the back of America’s already overburdened economy, not to mention the creation of what some view as unintended and profound social upheaval.
There is no absolute right or wrong in this debate and a significant faction of society will begrudge whichever direction evolves. It is clear that a solid majority of the American populace support the enforcement of our existing immigration laws. Fundamentally, it boils down to a debate between somewhat idealistic, compassionate human rights advocates versus a more dispassionate, practical-minded, rule of law approach. After in-depth research and careful analysis, it would seem that the most fair-minded, logical and practical approach is for the U.S. to ultimately place the interests of its own citizens first and follow the rule of law by enforcing existing laws prohibiting illegal immigration. American society cannot be selective on choosing which laws to enforce. If a law is viewed as unjust or unpopular, the U.S. Constitution clearly allows for change; but, unless or until that occurs, existing immigration laws must be enforced.
It must also be reiterated that the debate is really not about immigration per se. It is reasonable to assume that a vast majority of Americans are not opposed to systematic, controlled immigration. Rather, the crucial element surrounding the entire issue is the illegal aspect of illegal immigration. Advocates of illegal immigration when presenting their case to the public often overlook this key point.
As mentioned above, there are two sides of every issue. Despite all the negative arguments leveled against illegal immigration, there is no doubt the U.S. derives some benefits — most notably in the form of cheap labor. Advocates for illegal immigration claim that illegals keep the economy growing by filling low-wage jobs many Americans won’t do. The Wall Street Journal reported in 2005 that illegal immigration is positive for our economy and they generate a net economic benefit. In a $13 trillion economy, illegal immigrants accounted for about 1% of total economic activity, which would mean they contribute about $13 billion. (wsj.com) Illegals also contribute towards social security that is often unclaimed. They pay sales tax and keep real estate markets propped up in remote areas where renters are difficult to find. However, despite these arguments the economic benefits do not outweigh the net drain that illegal immigrants impose on the American economy and American citizens in the form of lost jobs and huge social costs.
The U.S. population is currently comprised of roughly 5% illegal immigrants and this number is expected to grow dramatically. The Pew Research Center projects that, by 2050, Caucasians will become a minority in the U.S. and Hispanics will comprise the majority, with two thirds of this growth deriving from illegal immigration. (pewhispanic.org). Some economists maintain that this would decimate the American economy. Illegal immigration will continue to have huge economic ramifications on our society. U.S. News & World Report reported in November, 2008 that the U.S. Federal Government’s annual expenditure for aid to illegal immigrants totaled twenty-two billion dollars for welfare, two billion on food assistance programs, and two and a half billion dollars for Medicaid. (usnews.com) The financial impact will only continue to grow almost exponentially as the projected wave of huge numbers of illegal immigrants continues unabated. Although the current economic crisis may result in a temporary slow down, it will not deter the growth of illegal migration over the longer term because the U.S. economy is expected to remain relatively stronger than the economies of Mexico and Central America who suffer from systematic dysfunction. Therefore, the incentive in those countries to find greener pastures will not go away any time soon. This begs the imponderable question of where it all leads and when might the U.S. Government and/or state and local regulatory bodies finally be forced to take decisive action to halt illegal, uncontrolled immigration.
The above-mentioned fiscal impacts do not factor in the significant negative impact that certain factions of illegal aliens have on society as a whole. Illegal aliens are a major component in the growing plague of gang-related warfare and drug trafficking. This is not to say that illegal criminals are the sole cause, but their continued presence will accelerate the problem in a significant way. According to proceedings from a 1997 meeting of the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Immigration and Claims, “Through other violations of our immigration laws, Mexican drug cartels are able to extend their command and control into the United States. Drug smuggling fosters, subsidizes, and is dependent upon continued illegal immigration and alien smuggling.” In fact, these drug cartels account for 80% of the supply of methamphetamines in the U.S. Many of these drugs are being handled and trafficked through gangs, which have recently grown substantially due to the influx of illegals. This number is shocking and many American citizens are confused as to why Congress hasn’t initiated any effective countermeasures. The trafficking of drugs, culture of gangs is emboldened as their memberships swell from the continuous flow of illegal immigrants. According to the Los Angeles Times, 60% of Mexican gang members in Los Angeles are illegal immigrants. These gangs have become intertwined within schools throughout California, Arizona, and other border states. They have wreaked havoc on the educational environment, impeding students’ ability to learn and creating an almost siege mentality by threatening the safety of every student, teacher or administrator. In many cases these unruly immigrants are simply transferring antisocial behavior ingrained while growing up in poverty-stricken environments where fighting and petty theft was often the norm. An additional threat from our porous borders is the increased likelihood of terrorist infiltration, making border control a national security issue. Should the U.S. be so lax in screening immigrants and refugees and could it not do a far more effective job at filtering out criminal elements?
The most overlooked and misrepresented aspect of illegal immigration is its impact is socials services and associated hidden costs, especially on local governing bodies. This has created a crisis of unprecedented proportion in our social institutions, especially schools and medical facilities. As mentioned above, illegals have contributed significantly to the erosion in the quality of education, especially in Border States such as California and Arizona, by straining the coffers and resources of local school districts. Medical emergency rooms are closing all over the country, having been bankrupted by the huge influx of illegal aliens who are unable or unwilling to pay for the services. Illegals benefit from taxpayer-provided infrastructure in that they use public roads and transport, send children to public schools, receive welfare and engage in a host of activities, all of which drain social services and the government coffers. The difference is that U.S. citizens and green card holders pay the full gamut of taxes that fund our social infrastructure.
Many advocate that the American economy could not function without a readily available, inexpensive immigrant labor pool. However, no one has yet made an objective, comprehensive or decisive analysis substantiating this claim. It is equally plausible that illegal immigration has cost Americans millions of jobs and significantly lowered the market rate for labor. While cheap labor has obvious benefits, once the total economic and social costs are factored in, it is highly unlikely that the equation can be favorable to U.S. taxpayers. With America in a severe recession, it can no longer remain indecisive on this issue. With unemployment approaching the 7-10% range and the auto industry on the verge of bankruptcy, many researchers believe Americans are now far more willing to take lower wage jobs. In 2007, the Wall Street Journal reported that illegals took $18.1 billion a year in wages away from American citizens. (wsj.com) With no income tax being paid, this has huge ramifications for government spending. In California, illegals often deprive needy students from getting lower wage summer jobs. The tradition of youth gaining real-life work experience via part-time or summer jobs has been significantly curtailed by the influx of illegal immigrants. It is fallacious to assume that no Americans will ever perform low-paying or manual labor jobs. The laws of the free market dictate that any labor vacuum will eventually fill these jobs, albeit at perhaps a higher cost. After all, who worked coal mines a century ago, well before the availability of cheap labor from Mexico and South America?
Granted, these immigrants emigrate from countries in a state of economic and social disarray and they are often fleeing civil war, repression, religious persecution, genocide, or dictatorships. However, even the U.S. super power has very real limitations in its ability to absorb refugees and/or fund every tragic situation around the world. Compassion must be rooted in economic reality. The U.S. is indebted to China for trillions of dollars and can no longer justify paying for non-American citizens no matter how dire their situation may be.
A fundamental problem in curtailing illegal immigration lies with the ineffective enforcement on employers, especially large corporations and the agricultural sector that are the primary beneficiaries of cheap illegal labor to ensure continued positive profit margins. It is a truly propitious scenario for employers: depressed labor costs, an abundant supply of workers who don’t demand benefits, and the avoidance of unions and labor laws. Unfortunately, it is affecting everyone else’s paycheck with higher taxes and dwindling resources. These huge windfall profits by companies exploiting illegal laborers have resulted in outspoken officials such as Tennessee Senator, Bill Frist, and newly appointed Homeland Security Director, Jane Napolitano, stepping up and pushing for corporations to be held accountable for their actions. For example, Wal-Mart paid $11 million in 2005 to settle a federal investigation that found hundreds of illegal immigrants hired by Wal-Mart’s cleaning contractors. The largest crackdown in U.S. history occurred in 2006 at Swift meat processing plants when the federal government raided their plants and arrested 1,300 illegal immigrant employees. The problem is that not enough advocates are willing to take on corporations. Most recently, Democrat Harry Reid decided to cripple his party’s ability to vote on several amendments that would help legalize illegal immigration and alleviate the burden of illegal immigrants on taxpayers. This type of stubbornness in Congress is indicative of the mentality that pervades the entire government, resulting in almost no progress while the corporate and agricultural sectors continue to reap the benefits and American taxpayers ultimately pay the consequences. Polls clearly show that the majority of the American populace wants change; yet, unfortunately, the government has been unwilling to support comprehensive reform.
The U.S. Federal Government has been unable and/or unwilling to commit to any form of comprehensive prevention measures that will halt illegal immigration. If the government continues to offer free social benefits to illegals, it is only human nature for people to take advantage of them. Advocates of immigration reform say the U.S. must remove the magnet that attracts illegals. They propose that, if you dry up the source of the problem by cracking down hard on those who knowingly employ illegals and eliminate free social benefits, then the flow of illegal immigrants will be drastically reduced. They argue that, by removing the core attraction, a significant proportion of illegals would eventually leave the country over time by natural attrition and that the whole argument about what to do about the millions of illegals already here is really just a red herring. Certainly, this would force some illegals into a black market existence, but the total net reduction across the country would almost certainly make it worthwhile. Eliminating free social benefits for illegals will also result in many returning back home once living an illegal existence in the U.S. becomes much more difficult. Enforcing existing laws and imposing stricter restrictions by making it a felony to hire illegals would quickly remove the magnet attracting illegal immigrants. Immigration policy must implement existing tamper-proof biometric identity verification technology such as E-Verify and enable data base comparisons across multiple regulatory bodies. Perhaps most importantly, putting a few high-profile CEOs in prison on felony charges would send a strong signal to all parties that the U.S. is serious about immigration reform.
Those who choose to gain citizenship through proper, legal channels will be granted all the freedoms and benefits that are granted to legal residents and U.S. citizens. This raises another major component that many people believe must be addressed as part of a comprehensive immigration policy: a practical guest worker program. There is no doubt that the U.S. economy, especially agriculture, can benefit from a ready source of immigrant labor just so long as it’s done in a controlled, systematic manner. It’s not enough to simply enforce the borders or dry up the magnet of illegal corporate and agricultural employment. These must go hand-in-hand with a fair and efficient guest worker program that still results in providing the immigrant labor resources needed while allowing them to pay their fair share of taxes, receive rightful benefits and to easily travel home as dictated by seasonal employment and personal family needs. The models for successful guest worker programs already exist in places like Australia, with Indonesian immigrant, and Germany, Turkish immigrants.
The illegal immigration issue in the U.S. is complex, but it can indeed be resolved in a fair-handed manner that addresses most everyone’s concerns. However, this will require compromise and sacrifice and, most importantly, a grass-roots movement among American voters to pressure both the government and corporate sectors to finally invoke the law and implement real change. The challenge is multi-faceted and the solution will require a comprehensive approach. Any comprehensive immigration policy must address three basic areas in tandem: 1) Close the borders; 2) Enforce/strengthen laws making employment of illegals a felony, including hard prison time for CEOs who are found guilty; and 3) implement a viable guest worker program that allows for the free flow of labor resources in a systematic, controlled manner.
Ultimately, the U.S. Government must follow the rule of law and serve the best interests of the majority of American citizens. An ideologue mentality and utopian compassion cannot be allowed to overwhelm the rule of law and the very real economic threat to the U.S. which will result if nothing is done. Considering all the pros and cons of illegal immigration, we can no longer justify the means. What will happen to our society if millions of illegals are allowed to continue to colonize America without paying their fair share? The majority of intellectuals on this issue agree that such a transformation would lead to continued polarization and social degradation. The only viable solution is for the U.S. to adopt an effective comprehensive immigration reform that incentivizes immigrants to seek U.S. citizenship or some form of alternative legal status. If the U.S. wants to perpetuate it ideals of life, liberty, and happiness it must finally take a clear stand on effective immigration reform.
In “The High Cost of Cheap Labor,” Steven Camarota, Director of Research for the Center of Immigration Studies in Washington, D.C. discusses illegal immigration’s total impact on the U.S. and, in particular, it’s negative impact on the federal budget. He is renowned for testifying in Congress and is widely published on the subject of the political impact and economic cost that illegal immigration is extracting on the United States. He is a persuasive advocate for this issue and wrote this article to engender the support of the American People for his position. This article analyzes both the direct and indirect costs illegal immigration has imposed on the local and federal levels.
Illegal immigration has been brought to the national stage over the past decade due to the vast influx of illegal immigrants and, as Camarota contends, their net drain on the U.S. economy. Camarota makes a compelling and passionate argument, supported by numerous facts, that illegal immigrants consume far more resources, welfare, Medicare, and federal aid than they produce for the economy and are therefore a huge net fiscal drain on our society.
Steven Camarota maintains that many preconceived notions about the so-called positive fiscal impact of illegal households turn out to be incorrect when examined more closely. He supports this position using a myriad of charts and facts to refute what he believes are generally accepted myths that over inflate the economic contribution of illegal immigrants. Camarota’s goal in this article is to persuade readers to adopt his compelling views on how the government should deal with the controversial issue of illegal immigration. The article is very fact driven and he supports each claim; however, his biased view does come into play throughout the article. His objective is to make the reader aware of the enormous fiscal drain and to become an advocate for his proposed solution. Based on his extensive life experience with this topic, Caramota is adept at pointing out specific problems and issues in a compelling manner. One of his key points is that illegal immigrants incur enormous hidden social costs. For example he states, “The U.S. pays illegal immigrants around $2.5 billion a year in Medicaid, $2.2 billion in food assistance programs, and they incur costs of $3 billion in the form of other federal aid, federal prisons, and the court system.” Camarota begins his article by pointing out in no uncertain terms the very negative consequences of illegal immigration. At its conclusion, he does a deft job of expanding on his premise and informing the reader as to what he believes is the true extent of the problem.
Camarota proposes an immediate, short-term solution whereby amnesty would be granted to all illegal immigrants. He explains, “Our estimates show that amnesty would significantly increase tax per household revenue by 77% ($3,200); however, it would still not offset the $8,200 per household of benefits they receive.” In Camarota’s opinion, this short-term solution would grant them citizenship, afford them the right to work in the U.S. legally and send money back home as well as paying more in taxes and abiding by the rule of law. While not the ultimate solution, he believes this amnesty approach would provide some immediate economic relief and would help create a more constructive path toward a more comprehensive, long-term solution.
Camarota concludes the article by also offering a straightforward longer-term solution: close the borders and enforce the law. He states, “If we are serious about avoiding the fiscal costs of illegal immigration, the only real option is to enforce the law and reduce the number of illegal aliens in the country.” He explains that the government needs to be more proactive by enforcing existing laws. He further contends that, if illegal immigration growth continues unchecked, the U.S. will soon become unable to support its future population.
Upon reflection, I tend to agree with Camarota’s premise and his proposals. He wants the government to act more quickly by granting an immediate amnesty to all illegals thereby making them citizens and resulting in their paying more taxes. He supports these arguments based on the net benefits that will accrue to the country and also, of course, the assumption that his facts are correct. He also makes a plausible case for a long-term albeit controversial solution that entails closing the borders and enforcing existing immigration laws.
In my assessment, Camarota would be very satisfied with this article. He presents strong factual support in a very persuasive manner and will likely shift many readers’ opinions on the illegal immigration dilemma. The strengths of this article lie in Camarota’s ability to support his premise that illegals are a huge liability and that we are paying a very high cost for cheap labor.
If there is a weakness or shortcoming in Camarota’s article, it is his unwillingness to acknowledge or present a balanced view for the other side of the argument. He includes numerous examples illustrating how illegal immigrants have had a negative fiscal impact on our country, but never balances this argument by listing any of the positive contributions they make. Such a biased approach may serve to reinforce the views of a reader who already shares Camarota’s position. A more critical objective reader would benefit from a more balanced presentation of the facts. Omitting the contra-facts can serve to weaken the argument and Camarota would achieve greater credibility with a more objective discussion to persuade the reader based on the factual merits of his position. He has clearly done his research with punctual examples such as, “Illegal aliens impose about $26.3 billion in costs on the federal government and only pay $16 billion in taxes which equal a net deficit of $10.3 billion.” Incorporating facts and opinions from other experts or journals would enable readers to reach their own informed conclusions and not be swayed solely by Camarota’s points of view.
Camarota relies heavily on the argument that the total contributions of illegal immigrant do not offset their consumption of resources and the high cost they impose on American society. He attempts to enlist negative sentiment toward illegal immigrants by dwelling on the dramatic negative impact they have made on the American economic landscape. Camarota also assumes that his readers are concerned only about the economical impact of illegal immigration. He does not acknowledge the human rights aspect nor discuss the compassionate views of many Americans who propose amnesty on the basis that we should not deny them access to the American Dream and our principles of universal liberty.
With such a controversial issue many people may agree with Camarota simply due to the fact that, in today’s extremely difficult economic environment, the U.S. no longer has the luxury to support non-citizens who are here illegally. His goal was to shift a preconceived notion that illegals are beneficial to the overall economy and I think he succeeds in that endeavor. In the final analysis and, in spite of his one-sided approach, I believe Steven Camarota will ultimately gain the support of his readers due to his convincing presentation of the facts.
For Stocks on Wall Street, July provided to be once again a disappointment. Due to my travels in London I was harmed from putting full forth all my effort to promote the website. Stocks on Wall Street had a total earnings of $380.40 for the month of July and this is how it broke down. As for Subscribers I reached 103 and my Twitter account has jumped to over 10,000 Followers all reaching my campaign goals. RandomChatter was the only one that missed its target totaling only 987 Members.
Google Adsense: $298.79
Commission Junction: $131.61
Private Advertisements: $0
Total April Income: $430.40
Registered Subscribers: 103
Twitter Followers: 10,000
RandomChatter Users: 987
Top 10 Posts
Results from this Month’s Research Reports
Total Monthly Gains ↑31%
What to work on?
My goal for the month of August is to have my earnings exceed $450. Yes that was my goal for last two months but since I did not reach it I look to target it again. I have strong feeling I will be able to accomplish this as I will be completely free for the whole month of August and can put forth my full effort. I look to continue to test out the different publisher and affiliate programs and help narrow down to a consistent set of solid advertisers. Commission Junction is my new favorite as it is proving to be quite profitable. I am still looking to add a solid group of private advertisers to pay for permanent ads rather than the pay-per-click Google Adsense Ads I currently use. If anyone is interested check out the Advertising Section. Another factor I want to continue to increase is the user subscription. Currently I have 103 signed up users for the monthly newsletter, I hope to have over 120 followers by the end of May. The next Social Network I want to expand is my Twitter account, currently I have over 9,000 Twitter followers, by the end of the August I wish to have 11,000+. Finally the last thing I hope to grow is my Finance Forum and General Discussion Board, RandomChatter, currently there is 900 registered users, I want to increase this number to 1000+ users by the end of July.
Monthly Income: $450+
Twitter Followers: 12,000+
Random Chatter Users: 1,050+
All in all, again I am excited with the progress the site has made and look for it to grow in the coming future. To help me out, please keep subscribing to Stocks on Wall Street, follow me on Twitter, and register for Random Chatter. The more help the better and I look forward to provide incentives to users in the coming future who complete all three.